"When you change the way you look at things, the things you look at change."   —Max Planck

CONTENTS

Analysis Of Miley Data
Consequences Of Partitioning The Photon Into Its Electrical And Magnetic Vectors Upon Absorption By An Electron
Nickel Transmutation and Excess Heat Model Using Reversible Thermodynamics - The Least Action Nuclear Process (LANP) Model
Re-thinking Cold Fusion Physics: An Essay
Cold Fusion and the First Law of Thermodynamics: An Essay
Can We Explain Excess Heat Uncertainty With a Law of Physics: An Essay
The Atom's Temperature
Cold Fusion and the Three Laws of Thermodynamics
Review Of Temperature Issue And My Calculations 12/8/15
Theory of Heat I - Non-equilibrium, Non-quantum, Blackbody Radiation Equation Reveals a Second Temperature Scale
Theory of Heat II - A Model of Cell Structure and Function
Theory of Heat III - Nickel Transmutation and Excess Heat Model Using Reversible Thermodynamics

Can We Explain Excess Heat Uncertainty
With a Law of Physics: An Essay

Accepted for Publication in Infinite Energy Magazine, vol. 21, issue 128
Daniel S. Szumski1
1Independent Scholar, 513 F Street, Davis, CA 95616, USA, danszumski@gmail.com

The most potent criticism of cold fusion experiments centers on our inability to produce excess heat reliably. The argument goes something like this. Natural laws are exact and reproducible. These experiments are neither. Most critics conclude that the heat effect is due to measurement error. Others, including some cold fusion scientists, say that there must be some other factor, present in some experiments and not in others, that produces excess heat in such a random fashion. Nowhere else in nature, has a law of physics produced seemingly random results like this.

So we have this dilema. Those of us in the cold fusion field believe that the excess heat effect is real, and that the underlying process is indeed nuclear. But, just like the mainstream physicist, we have to ask: How does a Law of Nature produce such random results, not just for the presence or absence of excess heat, but also its time series? This essay will show how a completely deterministic system, operating according to natural laws, can exhibit this type of random behavior, but only if the underlying process is thermodynamically reversible.

A. Primary and Secondary Effects

We conduct our experiments as if excess heat was the primary experimental effect. But it is not. Nuclear transmutations occur at a much more fundamental level in the cold fusion process, and are thought to be responsible for the excess heat and low level radiation that are routinely reported. In fact, Tadihiko Mizuno's meticulous experiments show that nuclear transmutations occur even when no excess heat is observed(1). This single observation suggests that the switching mechanism driving the 'excess heat' 'no excess heat' portion of the process is not the presence or absence of nuclear reactions, but possibly, a law of nature that modifies excess heat production, and possibly, the other two anomolous behaviors: the absence of gamma radiation, and the absence of unstable end products.

B. The Principle of Least Action

Laws of Nature are always precise and reproducible. How can a law of physics produce what appears to be completely random output?

LANP theory(2,3,4,5) provides an answer to this question, only because its process is thermodynamically reversible. These are processes that operate at the very limits of the Second Law where entropy production ceases. Every next step in any, and all, reversible thermodynamic processes, is determined precisely and unambiguously by the Principle of Least Action(6). In the LANP model 'least action' is taken as the 'smallest mass/energy change.'

The nuclear transmutations occuring in our metal lattice electrode involve reactions of deuterium, with the base metal isotopes [], and the isotopes of impurities in it [eg: elements etc]. The nuclear transmutations can be either exothermal, or heat producing with a positive sign:

or endothermal, or heat consuming with a negative sign:

Every next step in the Least Action Nuclear Process is that which produces the smallest mass/energy change regardless of its sign. All heat exchanges take place through the far-from-equilibrium blackbody spectral distribution in the electrode's covalent and Mossbauer resonant bonds [** www.LeastActionNuclearProcess.com for details of calculations].

Heat Evolved

Consider the graph above. It displays the energy changes from a hypothetical least action process, plotted as a time series. First, I want you to see how the process proceeds in the direction of increasing mass/energy change. I have rounded these energy changes to the nearest one, two or three units to make the lower graph more easily understood. Now notice how the individual transmutation energy changes tend to be positive in the first portion of the graph. This causes a net positive change in the process temperature, and excess heat is observed. Now watch what happens in the last third of the transmutation-energy-change time series where negative energy changes predominate. Heat production decreases...going negative, and no excess heat is observed late in the experiment. I also want you to notice the one unit change occuring at the end of the time series. Anomolies like this occur because deuterium reactions with transmutation products are continually adding new low energy changes that further distort the tranmutation-energy-change time series and consequently the excess heat profile.

Now consider what happens when the electrode composition changes by the addition or subtraction of specific stable isotopes in the initial electrode. The entire Least Action Nuclear Process changes. And although the underlying law of Nature is both precise and completely deterministic, a much different excess heat time series is observed. In this way, we see how apparent randomness is introduced into the completely deterministic LANP process.

But, the more important point that I want to make, is how this seemingly random response occurs because, and only because, every next step is exactly and unambigously determined by the Principle of Least Action. This is how laws of nature behave, in accordance with strict determinism. But, this happens only because the underlying process is thermodynamically reversible. I hope that this example makes it clear how randomness and non-reproducibility can occur in cold fusion experiments.

C. Experimental

Allow me to explain another little known observation related to this discussion. We have seen that it is the mix of metal latice atoms and impurities that determines the characteristics of the excess heat time series. It then follows that there will be experiments where the negative mass/energy changes will predominate throughout the experiment, and little or no excess heat will be observed. But, the LANP model predicts that nuclear transmutations will have occured even in these 'no excess heat' experiments. The meticulous experimentalist, Tadahiko Mizuno, sent me his data sheets(1) on just such a 'no excess heat' experiment. His before and after SIMS analyses show a broad range of transmutation products even though no excess heat was measured. Dr. Mizuno completed the post-experiment SIMS analysis when most of us would probably not even consider measuring isotope fractions in an electrod where no excess heat was produced. But remember, heat is the secondary effect (Ref:Tadahiko Mizuno, personal communication). Nuclear transmutations are far more fundamental to the process. This is the genius of Tadahiko Mizuno.

Log Counts

D. Conclusion

This analysis is informative in the way that it disaggregates 'excess heat' from the more fundamental process in cold fusion experiments: nuclear transmutations. If our goal is to simply commercialize the process, excess heat is a reasonable, primary experimental variable. In fact, if the mechanism between nuclear transmutation and excess heat was unambiguous, this might be a pefectly good way to proceed. However, as we have discovered, this is not the case, and our experiments have not yet found an experimental variable that allows us to modify the heat response in predictable ways.

If we are to understand this process, we have to study it at its more fundamental level: nuclear transmutations. When the nuclear process has a working theory, the mechanism responsibe for modiying the heat output of the nuclear process can be studied in a more productive way. One fruitful scientific approach is the LANP theory of cold fusion which seeks to understand the fundamental process. With this theory in hand, it then becomes possible to show how the primary processes output in modified, according to a law of nature, to produce the randomness that we see in our excess heat experiments. Again, Tadahiko Mizuno was entirely correct in titling his book: Nuclear Transmutations: The Reality of Cold Fusion(7).

E. References

  1. Mizuno, T. , Experimental data file 'PDbefore.XLS', personal communication.
  2. Szumski, D.S., "Consequences of Partitioning the Photon into its Electrical and Magnetic Vectors upon Absorption by an Electron", In the Nature of Light: What are Photons? V. Chandrasekhar Roychoudhuri; Al F. Kracklauer; Hans De Raedt, editors, Proceedings of SPIE Vol 8832 (SPIE, Bellingham, WA), 883201, 2013.
  3. Szumski, D.S. "Nickel Transmutation and Excess Heat Model Using Reversible Thermodynamics", J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci. 13 (2014) 554-564.
  4. Szumski, D., "Rethinking Cold Fusion Physics", Infinite Energy, vol 20, 120, 2015.
  5. Szumski, D., "Cold Fusion and the First Law of Thermodynamics", Infinite Energy, vol 20, 122, 2015.
  6. Planck, M., Eight Lectures in Theoretical Physics, 1909, translated by A.P. Wills, Columbia U. Press, NY 1915.
  7. Mizuno, T. , Nuclear Transmutations: The Reality of Cold Fusion, US: Cold Fusion Technology, 1998.