"When you change the way you look at things, the things you look at change."   —Max Planck

CONTENTS

Analysis Of Miley Data
Consequences Of Partitioning The Photon Into Its Electrical And Magnetic Vectors Upon Absorption By An Electron
Nickel Transmutation and Excess Heat Model Using Reversible Thermodynamics - The Least Action Nuclear Process (LANP) Model
Re-thinking Cold Fusion Physics: An Essay
Cold Fusion and the First Law of Thermodynamics: An Essay
Can We Explain Excess Heat Uncertainty With a Law of Physics: An Essay
The Atom's Temperature
Cold Fusion and the Three Laws of Thermodynamics
Review Of Temperature Issue And My Calculations 12/8/15
Theory of Heat I - Non-equilibrium, Non-quantum, Blackbody Radiation Equation Reveals a Second Temperature Scale
Theory of Heat II - A Model of Cell Structure and Function
Theory of Heat III - Nickel Transmutation and Excess Heat Model Using Reversible Thermodynamics

The Atom's Temperature

Presented at ICCF-19, submitted to J. Cond Matter Nuclear Sci.
Daniel S. Szumski1
1Independent Scholar, 513 F Street, Davis, CA 95616, USA, danszumski@gmail.com

A. Introduction

Temperature is a derivative. By convention(1) it is the rate of radiation emittance from any material body expressed either as J/t, or more practically, J/m2-t. It is uniquely defined by a temperature-specific, equilibrium blackbody spectrum, which is identical in the interior of all material bodies at the same temperature, regardless of their composition, and as we will see, regardless of their size. Max Planck's theory(1) of the blackbody's equilibrium spectra, introduced the quantum into physics.

Temperature also has foundations in molecular motion. It was Helmholtz's great contribution to physics that heat reduces to motion. Planck(2) places this understanding on an equal footing with James Clerk Maxwell's treatment of light as electromagnetic waves. The Maxwell-Boltzmann equation (3,4) for an ideal gas's molecular velocity distribution expresses this theory's fundamentals.

While there has been theoretical consideration of the relationship between these heat theories(see (5)), the only theoretical framework relating the two in a quantitative way, is a model containing two temperatures(5), one for the radiation domain, and another for the domain of molecular motion, or what I will call the mass domain. This non-equilibrium heat theory recognizes heat transfer between the mass and radiation domains, and is elegant in the way that the two temperatures can be separated in a far-from-equilibrium manner. The theory's principle shortcoming is a small, but real departure from Planck's theory when the two temperatures are at equilibrium. It is possible that this difference might itself be a fundamental element of heat theory.

The foundations of temperature as a measure of heat content lie in the probabilistic domain of statistical mechanics. In Planck's radiation form, the equilibrium state's statistics are derived from the energy distribution of harmonic oscillators; while in the mass domain, it is the statistical distribution of molecular velocity in an ideal gas which is distributed according to the Maxwell distribution(3). Because these laws are statistical, there should be limits to their validity as the number of participating energy units decreases. Here we will consider the limiting case where the statistical foundations of the Second Law transition from probabilistic to wholly deterministic. It is in this limit, that we will enter the domain of the thermodynamically reversible process.

B. The Photon's Irreversible and Reversible States

Our quest for the atom's temperature begins with an understanding of the photon, and in particular, the two mechanistic pathways accessible for its evolution in the presence of an electron(5). This theory of photon absorption is the first of two elements of new science required by the Least Action Nuclear Process model of cold fusion.

Photon absorption is considered to be a two step process. In the first step, the photon is wholly absorbed into the electron but retains its identity as a reversible process. In the second absorption step, the photon evolves into the electron's three dimensions. The electrical and magnetic components decouple, and the electrical vector evolves to three-dimensional charge (with its dielectric loss), and as a consequence, enters the domain of irreversible thermodynamics. The magnetic vector on the other hand has no three-dimensional equivalent, remains one-dimensional, and contributes to the electrons one-dimensional para-magnetic spin. This asymmetrical evolution from one dimension to three, distorts the space/time fabric, giving rise to the characteristic blackbody emittance spectra.

However, there is nothing requiring that the absorbed photon evolves into three dimensions. Consider the possibility that it is immediately re-emitted in precisely the state that had only undergone that first step of photon absorption. The emitted photon is still 1-D, and remains in its reversible thermodynamic state. But let's go one step further and allow this emitted photon to undergo first step absorption by a second electron…and then be re-emitted still as 1-D, and re-absorbed by the first electron, and so on. We have just arrived at the quantum electro-dynamic description of a covalent bond(6). Its photon energy is locked between two electrons, and remains unchanged indefinitely. This view of the covalent bond allows us to assign it a definite energy, while allowing for a broad range of energy conditions where either of these atoms is covalently paired with a different atom, or in a different molecular structure.

First, note how this resonant bond is a wholly reversible thermodynamic quantity, existing without any losses, and with no change in its entropy condition. The effective distance between these covalent electrons is the shared photon's wave length. Secondly, this model describes the permanence of the bond. It is this stability of the covalent bond that gives it the very special place in the energy structure of biological and chemical molecular forms.

C. Temperature of the Irreversible Thermodynamic Process

The area beneath any of the temperature curves described by Planck's blackbody radiation spectra (Figure 2) uniquely defines a specific temperature:

  1. 1

where K(v) is the blackbody spectral emittance; the factor 1 is the conversion factor: per m2; and the statistical representation in Equation (1) includes both radiation domain heat energy, and heat of molecular motion. The temperature measurement is independent of the material's composition, and as it turns out, it is also independent of its size.

Spectral Emittance

Figure 1- Planck's equilibrium blackbody spectral curves, illustrating the types of photonic interaction required of harmonic oscillators across the spectrum.

Before going further in our understanding of how this irreversible process definition of temperature might differ from that of the reversible thermodynamic state, I need to divert your attention to a conundrum that arises in the contemporary interpretation of Planck's equilibrium blackbody theory, and which is central to what is to follow. In particular, the range of Planck oscillator energies in Figure 1 is far beyond the normal range for electron absorption and emission. It extends into the X-ray and gamma portions of the spectrum where the oscillator energies can no longer be emitted by, or transferred between, electrons. Muelenberg( 7) has pointed out that this spectral continuum has to include intermediate energy exchanges that can only occur between higher energy electrons, probably extending to Deep Dirac Level (DDL) s-shell electrons. Szumski(8) has proposed a further extension of this continuum to Mossbauer resonant nuclear bonds, extending into the gamma range shown in Figure 1, and possibly into the far-gamma range. In these Mossbauer resonant bonds, gamma energy photons are emitted by lattice nuclei, and absorbed by its 'covalent' nuclei, then emitted by that nuclei, and absorbed by the original nuclei, and so on. As in the covalent bond case, this process is thermodynamically reversible, conserves energy, and functions without entropy change. What resonant electron and resonant nuclear bonding might look like over the blackbody spectrum's frequency range is shown at the top of Figure 1.

Do you see how these spectra necessitate an energy continuum from very low energy electron transitions, through what can only be described as nuclear energy transitions, or in this theory's terminology, nuclear resonant bonding. The validity of these curves is well established over this temperature range.

One final point in this regard. My calculations of Widom-Larsen's(9) 'heavy electrons' finds electron masses more than double those of 'standard model' electrons. These turn out to be equivalent to the mass-plus-energy of Muelenberg's(10) DDL electrons, which is a much more satisfying way of looking at the Widom-Larsen model's fundamentals.

D. Temperature of the Reversible Thermodynamic Process

My purpose here is to discuss the temperature sub-model of the Least Action Nuclear Process theory of cold fusion. The discussion begins by noting that nuclear transmutations are routinely observed in cold fusion experiments. This implies that the cold fusion process probably includes thermonuclear temperatures, and the associated thermal energy. But we see neither temperatures in this range, nor fusion energies in our experiments. This doesn't make sense. These are thermodynamic processes that are temperature and energy dependent. As such, it is essential that we understand how the required thermonuclear temperatures are masked from our observation in these room temperature experiments.

So, how is temperature measured in a reversible thermodynamic process? It has to be fundamentally different than the temperature of an irreversible thermodynamic process, wherein heat energy storage is partitioned between the mass and radiation domains, and the process is of a statistical nature. In the reversible process, there is no kinetic energy, and therefore, no mass domain energy storage. In fact, heat energy, or at least that portion that is accessible from the reversible process reaction space, is limited exclusively to the radiation domain. The motion of material particles, and the statistical uncertainty that it introduces, is foreign to reversible thermodynamics.

We will begin our inquiry by affirming that our focus on a reversible thermodynamic process does not change our definition of temperature. It is still the derivative expressing the total radiant emittance from a mass particle per unit time. Either of the covalent electron's discussed above, exhibit a temperature that is proportional to its emittance, K(v) measured as the photon energy, hv, times the frequency, v, of the individual emissions, but with the emittance of either electron occupying only one half of the process time. Therefore:

  1. 2

And, for nuclei in Mossbauer resonance:

  1. 2

Equations (2) and (3) are infinitesimal subsets of Equation (1). This treatment of nuclei in Mossbauer resonance is the second element of new science in the Least Action Nuclear Process modeling framework.

There are several important observations in this result. First, while Equations (2) and (3) are precise definitions, they can be misleading. The energy quanta involved in these temperature definitions cannot exist without a very structured antecedent spectral distribution that has to be filled before these quanta can exist [see Figure 2]. In this Theory of Heat the distribution of reversible process energy accumulates sequentially as TR increases, while Tm remains constant. In the illustration, Tm equals 300 °K as TR increases in quantum increments from 300 °K to 107 °K. There is nothing in this theory's fundamentals which precludes solar core, and even stellar nucleosynthesis temperatures between Mossbauer resonant nuclei. This is indeed, a requirement if the transmutation measurements of Mizuno (11) and Miley (12) are to be believed.

Log Frequency

Figure 2- Far-from-equilibrium blackbody spectral distribution for the reversible thermodynamic process in a Fleischmann-Pons cell, wherein all of the energy storage is in the radiation domain. Note the five order of magnitude difference between the cold fusion process and the Tokamak.

Secondly, the energy difference required to affect equivalent temperatures in a reversible and irreversible process is almost unbelievable. Consider the solar core temperatures for these processes shown in Figure 3. The irreversible thermodynamic process requires five orders of magnitude more energy than the reversible process. Coincidentally, this is the observed difference in energy requirements for fusion in the Tokomak, and in our cold fusion reactors.

Third, we note that this efficiency in the reversible process arises only because it by-passes the enormous kinetic energy requirements of the irreversible process. In other words, there is a dynamic equilibrium existing in all irreversible processes, between radiation and mass domain energy storage. In effect, the irreversible process drags around a lot of kinetic energy in order to produce an equivalent free energy (i.e. radiation domain) condition. Cold fusion exploits this advantage.

And finally, the improbable nature of this energy accumulation is dramatically demonstrated when we consider how the radiation domain energy in the metal lattice is accumulated(8). It is the waste heat of random deuterium motion that is harvested (in radio frequency quantum amounts) into the metal hydride lattice, and stored there as resonant bond energy. This flux of chemical (and nuclear) free energy into the lattice creates resonant photons having ever-increasing energy storage. This is the LANP model's forcing function. In effect, the continuous influx of these low energy quanta adds to the far-from-equilibrium energy storage until energies sufficient for nuclear ignition occur. Then energy accumulation continues, establishing ever increasing process energy, that causes a sequence of stepwise nuclear transmutations, always occurring in an order exactly specified by the Principle of Least Action(5).

E. Consequences of Thermonuclear Temperatures

It now becomes informative to inquire: what consequence results from this theory of the atom's temperature? Remember how we placed our covalent electrons close enough that they shared a single photon. When we do the same with two nuclei in Mossbauer resonance two things happen. First, the electromagnetic force increases in proportion to the increase in , thereby decreasing , and drawing the nuclei closer together. Do you see, in Figure 8, how the electro-magnetic force increases to energy levels that could become operative in overcoming the coulomb barrier in the cold fusion process?

Solar Temps

Simultaneously, the inter-nuclei temperature rises in proportion to v2, achieving thermonuclear temperatures in a stable far-from-equilibrium manner. As these two conditions converge on impending fusion/fission, this dissipative structure "exploits an instability in the normal thermodynamics (an extraordinarily high reservoir of free energy), causing a branch to what would otherwise be an inaccessible thermodynamic state." (nuclear fusion/ fission) [13]. These temperatures must rise to extraordinary levels, if the nuclear products in Miley's and Mizuno's data are to be believed.

Finally, I want you to clearly see how both the energy storage for nuclear transmutations, and the lattice temperatures, are localized between sub-atomic particles, and in this way, hidden from our observation. This is consistent with what we see in our experiments. More importantly, it is consistent with the fundamental tenant of physics: nuclear transmutations require both thermonuclear temperatures and thermonuclear energies. Low Energy Nuclear Reactions and similar representations of the cold fusion process are a misnomer. Cold fusion is indeed very hot.

Finally, this model element appears to offer explanations for certain mechanical properties observed in cold fusion experiments. For instance, we might expect that the tightening at the surface of the metal hydride lattice would increase its surface hardness and tensile strength. This appears to be born out by measurement. Furthermore, the surface cracking in electrodes could now be explained as the result of competition between dramatically increased surface tension due to decreasing lattice distances in near surface layers, and the uneffected bulk of the electrode.

F. Covalent Bonds, and a Lesson from the History of Science

All covalent bonds possess a very specific energy, and according to the theory developed in this paper, exhibit a specific temperature. It is proposed that the same energy relationships could also hold for Mossbauer resonant bonds between nuclei. In both cases, the bond is characterized as a shared photon operating as a reversible thermodynamic process, and at an effective distance of one wavelength. The force that facilitates these bonds is the electro-magnetic force, one of two forces in nature that holds up under careful scrutiny. The other is gravity.

The presence of extraordinary temperatures in these bonds is more speculative. The only evidence lies in the transmutation products measured in post-electrolysis cathodes. That these products could only have formed at nucleosynthesis temperatures is a compelling argument. And, perhaps equally impressive is the compact theoretical package that describes this temperature in relationship to the fusion energy's source, and a plausible solution to the coulomb barrier problem.

This type of speculation, based on theory, is one half of the research process. The other half is experimental inquiry to see if key elements of the theory can be verified by observation. The question then becomes: How can we measure these temperatures and energy quanta? This may be difficult. There is nothing in the literature that I am aware of, where covalent bond strength has been measured directly. The covalent force in biological systems is normally calculated from free energy considerations. Lattice bonding in metals might be calculated as well, possibly from considerations of tensile strength, and the yield properties of the metal. However, direct measurements are preferred. I don't know how this might be done. This is a call to the experimentalists' ingenuity.

We have to also ask ourselves, is it possible that extreme thermodynamic conditions like this might occur elsewhere in nature? Bockris (14) summarized what is generally seen as nuclear transmutation 'fringe literature', including biological transmutation research. More recently, Biberian(15) prepared an exhaustive review of the biological transmutation literature. I believe that it is not a coincidence that biological transmutation research is frequently reported at ICCF conferences. Both cold fusion and the living cell are very far-from-equilibrium processes that continue to confounded scientific inquiry.

Our understanding of biological fundamentals really began in the post-WWII era where experimental discovery seemed to be working hand-in-hand with theoretical advances, and a 'solution' to the living state question seemed at hand. The ensuing 65 years have seen extraordinary advances in our understanding of biomolecules and their systematic place in life. But on the theoretical side, the great promise of a theory of the living state dwindled to the point, where today, only a few individuals pursue Big Picture biology in any serious way. Those few theorists are humbled by the vast chasm between the experimental evidence and our understanding of the living system's fundamental processes. Of particular import is the high degree of variability in biological systems in spite of our intuitive sense that the highly organized and very exact cell structure should be highly deterministic in its function. And yet, it is not apparent that this is the case. There are, undoubtedly, deterministic trends, but these are obscured by a high degree of what is seen as randomness.

The same pattern is emerging in cold fusion research. Here again the variability is large relative to the heat response that we measure. At one end of the experimental response spectrum there is no excess heat evolution. At the other end, there is extraordinarily high excess heat production. At this point in theory development, experimental findings have outstripped theoretical understanding. Like the theoretical biologists before us, we are rapidly exhausting the understanding that contemporary science allows, and theory is floundering.

It is only with the greatest respect for the cold fusion theory community that I suggest, there is one poorly understood area of scientific inquiry that I believe could offer profound insights into both processes. It is reversible thermodynamics; where theory operates at the very limit of the Second Law of Thermodynamics.

Consider the facts. The cold fusion process and the scientific principles underlying the living state, are both very, very far-from-equilibrium events. Both seem to defy the Second Law; in the one case by producing large amounts of anomalous heat energy, and in the other, by producing a highly ordered state from light energy and a mostly random landscape of minor molecular forms. Both appear to be operating at the very limits of the Second Law, which is precisely the domain of the reversible process. Is it possible that the fundamentals of both processes might have roots in reversible thermodynamics? Is it possible that the common notion that reversible thermodynamic processes do not exist in nature impedes our ability to understand the fundamentals of both?

G. References

  1. Planck, M., Eight Lectures in Theoretical Physics, 1909, translated by A.P. Wills, Columbia U. Press, NY 1915.
  2. Planck, M., "Verhandlunger der Deutschen Physikalischen Gesellschaft" vol. 2, 237, 1900, or in English translation: Planck's Original Papers in Quantum Physics, Volume 1 of Classic Papers in Physics, H. Kangro ed., Wiley, New York, 1972.
  3. a: Maxwell, J.C. "Illustrations of the Dynamical Theory of Gases. Part I. On the Motion and Collision of Perfectly Elastic Spheres.". Phil. Mag., 4th Series, 19:19-32. 1860.
    b: Maxwell, J.C. "Illustrations of the Dynamical Theory of Gases. Part II. On the Process of Diffusion of Two or More Kinds of Moving Particles Among One Another". Phil. Mag., 4th Series, 20:21-37. 1860.
  4. Boltzmann, L., Lectures on Gas Theory, Translated by Stephen G Brush, University of California Press, Berkeley, 1964.
  5. Szumski, D.S., "Consequences of Partitioning the Photon into its Electrical and Magnetic Vectors upon Absorption by an Electron", In the Nature of Light: What are Photons? V. Chandrasekhar Roychoudhuri; Al F. Kracklauer; Hans De Raedt, editors, Proceedings of SPIE Vol 8832 (SPIE, Bellingham, WA), 883201, 2013.
  6. Serway, R.A., Vuille, C., College Physics, 4th Ed., Charles Hartford (pub.), 2012
  7. Muelenberg, A., Personal communication.
  8. Szumski, D.S. "Nickel Transmutation and Excess Heat Model Using Reversible Thermodynamics", J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci. 13 (2014) 554-564.
  9. Widom, A, Larsen, L, "Ultra Low Momentum Neutron Catalyzed Nuclear Reactions on Metallic Hydride Surfaces", European Physical Journal C - Particles and Fields, Vol. 46(1) (2006), 107-110.
  10. Muelenberg, A., Sinha, K.P., "Deep-electron Orbits in Cold Fusion", J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci. 13 (2014) 368-377
  11. Miley, G., J Patterson, "Nuclear Transmutations in thin-Film Nickel Coatings Undergoing Electrolysis", J. New Energy, vol. 1, no. 3, pp. 5-38, 1996.
  12. Mizuno, T., T. Ohmori, and M. Enyo, "Anomalous Isotopic Distribution in Palladium Cathode After Electrolysis", J. New Energy, 1996. 1(2): p. 37.
  13. Prigogine, I., Self-Organization in Non-Equilibrium Systems, Wiley, 1977.
  14. Bockris, J.O.M., Mallove, E.F., "Is the Occurrence of Cold Nuclear Reactions Widespread Throughout Nature?, Infinite Energy, 27, 29-38.
  15. Biberian, J.P., "Biological Transmutations: Historical Perspective", J Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci. 7 (2012) 11–25.